Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Studies


Studies on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (N = 62)

LGBTQ+ (n = 4)

Bond, R. M. (2018). Contagion in social attitudes about prejudice. Social Influence13(2), 104–116. doi:10.1080/15534510.2018.1453374

Fox, J., & Ralston, R. A. (2016). Queer identity online: Informal learning and teaching experiences of LGBTQ individuals on social media. Computers in Human Behavior, 65, 635-642. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2016.06.009

Fox, J., & Warber, K. M. (2015). Queer identity management and political self-expression on social networking sites: A co-cultural approach to the spiral of silence. Journal of Communication, 65, 79-100. doi:10.1111/jcom.12137

Groshek, J. G., & Holt, L. F. (2016). When official consensus equals more negativity in media coverage: Broadcast television news and the (re-) indexing of the ‘Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” repeal. Media War & Conflict, 10(2), 189-207. doi:10.1177/1750635216661650 


Gender (n = 29)

Appiah, O., Holt, L., White, T., & Dale, K. (2017). Sugar and spice, and everything nice: Do female stereotypes supersede in-group favoritism among men when evaluating female criminal suspects in new stories? Journalism and Mass Communication, 7(4), 165-186. doi:10.17265/2160-6579/2017.04.001

Burnay, J., Bushman, B. J., & Larøi, F. (2019). Effects of sexualized video games on online sexual harassment. Aggressive Behavior, 45(2), 214-223. doi:10.1002/ab.21811

Cho, H., & Choi, J. (2011). Television, gender norms, and tanning attitudes and intentions of young men and women. Communication Studies, 62, 508-530. doi:10.1080/10510974.2011.577500

Cho, H., Lee, S., & Wilson, K.M. (2010). Magazine exposure, stereotypical beliefs about tanned women, and tanning attitudes. Body Image, 7, 364-367. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2010.04.002

Cho, H., Hall, J.G., Kosmoski, C., Fox, R.L., & Mastin, T. (2010). Tanning, skin cancer risk, and prevention: A content analysis of eight popular magazines that target female readers, 1997-2006. Health Communication, 25, 1-10. doi:10.1080/10410230903265938

Christy, K. R., & Fox, J. (2014). Leaderboards in a virtual classroom: A test of stereotype threat and social comparison explanations for women’s math performance. Computers & Education, 78, 66-77. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2014.05.005

Fox, J., Cruz, C., & Lee, J. Y. (2015). Perpetuating online sexism offline: Anonymity, interactivity, and the effects of sexist hashtags on social media. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 436-442. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.06.024

Fox, J., & Potocki, B. (2016). Lifetime video game consumption, interpersonal aggression, hostile sexism, and rape myth acceptance: A cultivation perspective. Journal of Interpersonal Violence31(10), 1912–1931. doi:10.1177/0886260515570747

Fox, J., Ralston, R. A., Cooper, C. K., & Jones, K. A. (2015). Sexualized avatars lead to women’s self-objectification and acceptance of rape myths. Psychology of Women Quarterly39(3), 349–362. doi:10.1177/0361684314553578

Fox, J., & Tang, W. Y. (2014). Sexism in online video games: The role of conformity to masculine norms and social dominance orientation. Computers in Human Behavior, 33, 314-320. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2013.07.014 

Fox, J., & Tang, W. Y. (2017). Women’s experiences with general and sexual harassment in online video games: Rumination, organizational responsiveness, withdrawal, and coping strategies. New Media & Society19(8), 1290–1307. doi:10.1177/1461444816635778

Holz Ivory, A., Fox, J., Waddell, T. F., & Ivory, J. D. (2014). Sex-role stereotyping is hard to kill: A field experiment measuring social responses to user characteristics and behavior in an online multiplayer first-person shooter game. Computers in Human Behavior, 35, 148-156. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2014.02.026

Kennard, A. R., Willis, L. E., Robinson, M. J., & Knobloch-Westerwick, S. (2016). The allure of Aphrodite: How role-congruent media portrayals impact adult women’s possible future selves. Human Communication Research, 42, 221-245. doi:10.1111/hcre.12072

Knobloch-Westerwick, S. (2007). Gender differences in selective media use for mood management and mood adjustment. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 51, 73-92. doi:10.1080/08838150701308069

Knobloch-Westerwick, S., & Alter, S. (2007). The gender news use divide: Americans' sex-typed selective exposure to online news topics. Journal of Communication, 57, 739-758. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2007.00366.x

Knobloch, S., Callison, C., Chen, L., Fritzsche, A., & Zillmann, D. (2005). Children's sex-stereotyped self-socialization through selective exposure to entertainment fare: Cross-cultural experiments in Germany, China, and the United States. Journal of Communication, 55, 122-138. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2005.tb02662.x

Knobloch-Westerwick, S., & Glynn, C. J. (2013). The Matilda Effect—role congruity effects on scholarly communication: A citation analysis of Communication Research and Journal of Communication articles. Communication Research, 40, 3-26. doi:10.1177/0093650211418339

Knobloch-Westerwick, S., Glynn, C. J., & Huge, M. (2013). The Matilda Effect in science communication: An experiment on gender bias in publication quality perceptions and collaboration interest. Science Communication, 35, 603-625. doi:10.1177/1075547012472684

Knobloch-Westerwick, S., & Hoplamazian, G. (2012). Gendering the self: Selective magazine reading and reinforcement of gender conformity. Communication Research, 39, 358-384. doi:10.1177/0093650211425040

Knobloch-Westerwick, S., Kennard, A. R., Westerwick, A., Willis, L. E., & Gong, Y. (2014). A crack in the crystal ball? Prolonged exposure to media portrayals of social roles affect possible future selves. Communication Research, 41, 739-759. doi:10.1177/0093650213491113

Knobloch-Westerwick, S., Robinson, M. J., Willis, L. E., & Luong, K. T. (in press). Beauty or business queen: How young women select media to reinforce possible future selves. Communication Research. doi:10.1177/0093650215626978

Luong, K. T., & Knobloch-Westerwick, S. (2017). Can the media help women be better at math? Stereotype threat, selective exposure, media effects and women’s math performance. Human Communication Research, 43, 193-213. doi:10.1111/hcre.12101

Luong, K., Knobloch-Westerwick, S., & Niewiesk, S. (in press). Superstars within reach: The role of perceived attainability and role congruity in media role models on women's social comparisons. Communication Monographs. doi:10.1080/03637751.2019.1622143

Lynch, T., Tompkins, J. E., van Driel, I. I., & Fritz, N. (2016). Sexy, strong, and secondary: A content analysis of female characters in video games across 31 years. Journal of Communication66(4), 564–584. doi:10.1111/jcom.12237

Matthews, N. L., Lynch, T., & Martins, N. (2016). Real ideal: Investigating how ideal and hyper-ideal video game bodies affect men and women. Computers in Human Behavior59, 155–164. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2016.01.026

Read, G. L., Lynch, T., & Matthews, N. L. (2018). Increased cognitive load during video game play reduces rape myth acceptance and hostile sexism after exposure to sexualized female avatars. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research79(11–12), 683–698. doi:10.1007/s11199-018-0905-9

Vendemia, M. A., & DeAndrea, D. C. (2018). The effects of viewing thin, sexualized selfies on Instagram: Investigating the role of image source and awareness of photo editing practices. Body Image27, 118–127. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2018.08.013

Willis, L. E., & Knobloch-Westerwick, S. (2014). Weighing women down: Messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women’s health and fitness magazines. Health Communication, 29, 323-31. doi:10.1080/10410236.2012.755602

Yang, G. S., Huesmann, L. R., & Bushman, B. J. (2014). Effects of playing a violent video game as male versus female avatar on subsequent aggression in male and female players. Aggressive Behavior, 40, 537-541. doi:10.1002/ab.21551


Race (n = 29)

Appiah, O., Eveland, W. P., Jr., Bullock, O. M., & Coduto, K. D. (in press). Why we can’t talk openly about race: The impact of race and partisanship on respondents’ perceptions of intergroup conversations. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations.

Appiah, O., Knobloch-Westerwick, S., & Alter, S. (2013). Ingroup favoritism and outgroup derogation: Effects of news valence, character race, and recipient race on selective news reading. Journal of Communication, 63, 517-534. doi:10.1111/jcom.12032

Bushman, B. J., & Bonacci, A. M. (2004). You've got mail: Using e-mail to examine the effect of prejudiced attitudes on discrimination against Arabs. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology40(6), 753-759. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2004.02.001

Cao, W., & Cho, H. (in press). Culture in cancer survivorship interventions for Asian Americans: A systematic review and critical analyses. Asian American Journal of Psychology

Cho, H., Li, W., Cannon, J., Lopez, R., & Song, C. (2020). Testing three explanations for stigmatization of people of Asian descent during COVID-19: Maladaptive coping, biased media use, or racial prejudice? Ethnicity & Healthdoi:10.1080/13557858.2020.1830035

Das, E., Bushman, B. J., Bezemer, M. D., Kerkhof, P., & Vermeulen, I. E. (2009). How terrorism news reports increase prejudice against outgroups: A Terror Management account. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology45(3), 453-459. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2008.12.001

Eveland, W. P., Jr., & Appiah, O. (in press). A national conversation about race? Political discussion across lines of racial and partisan difference. Journal of Race, Ethnicity and Politics. doi:10.1017/rep.2019.36

Eveland, W. P., Jr., Appiah, O., & Beck, P. A. (2018). Americans are more exposed to difference than we think: Capturing hidden exposure to political and racial difference. Social Networks, 52, 192-200. doi:10.1016/j.socnet.2017.08.002

Eveland, W. P., Jr., Coduto, K. D., Appiah, O., & Bullock, O. M. (in press). Listening during political conversations: Traits and situations. Political Communication.

Eveland, W. P., Jr., & Nathanson, A. I. (in press). Contexts for family talk about racism: Historical, dyadic, and geographic. Journal of Family Communication.

Fox, J., & Holt, L. F. (2018). Fear of isolation and perceived affordances: The spiral of silence on social networking sites regarding police discrimination. Mass Communication & Society, 21, 533-554. doi:10.1080/15205436.2018.1442480

Holt, L. F. (2013). Writing the wrong: Can counter-stereotypes offset negative media messages about African-Americans? Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 90(1), 108-125. doi:10.1177/1077699012468699 

Holt, L. F. (2017). Bringing their tomorrow into today: Why it’s essential to teach diversity in advertising education. Journal of Advertising Education, 21(2), 15-17. doi:10.1177/109804821702100206 

Holt, L. F. (2017). Using the Elaboration Likelihood Model to explain to whom #Black Lives Matter… And to whom it does not. Journalism Practice, 12(2), 146-161. doi:10.1080/17512786.2017.1370974 

Holt, L. F. (2018). Dropping the ‘N-word’: Examining how a victim-centered approach could curtail the use of America’s most opprobrious term. The Journal of Black Studies, 49(5), 411-426. doi:10.1177/0021934718756798 

Holt, L. F., Ellithorpe, M. E., & Ralston, R. (2017). So why do you think that way?: Examining the role implicit attitudes and motivation play in audience’s perception of a racially charged issue. Media Psychology20(4), 584–606. doi:10.1080/15213269.2016.1227267

Holt, L. F., Hovick, S. R., Fete E. M., & Dailey, P. M. (2017). Taking a closer look at the factors that influence ethnic identity. Communication Studies, 68(2), 227-241. doi:10.1080/10510974.2017.1303620 

Holt, L. F., & Sweitzer, M. D. (2018). More than a black and white issue: Ethnic identity, social dominance orientation, and support for the black lives matter movement. Self and Identity. doi:10.1080/15298868.2018.1524788

Hovick, S. R., & Holt, L. F. (2016). Beyond race and ethnicity: Exploring the effects of ethnic identity and its implications for cancer communication efforts. Journal of Health Communication21(2), 199–207. doi:10.1080/10810730.2015.1058436

Johnson, J. D., Bushman, B. J., & Dovidio, J. F. (2008). Support for harmful treatment and reduction of empathy toward Blacks: "Remnants" of stereotype activation involving Hurricane Katrina and "Lil' Kim". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology44(6), 1506-1513. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2008.07.002

Knobloch-Westerwick, S. (2015). The selective exposure self- and affect-management (SESAM) model: Applications in the realms of race, politics, and health. Communication Research, 42, 959-985. doi:10.1177/0093650214539173

Knobloch-Westerwick, S., Appiah, O., & Alter, S. (2008). News selection patterns as a function of race: The discerning minority and the indiscriminating majority. Media Psychology, 11, 400-417. doi:10.1080/15213260802178542

Knobloch-Westerwick, S., & Coates, B. (2006). Minority models in advertisements in magazines popular with minorities. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 83, 596-614. doi:10.1177/107769900608300308

LaMarre, H., Knobloch-Westerwick, S., & Hoplamazian, G. (2012). Does the music matter? Examining differential effects of music genre on support for ethnic groups. Journal of Electronic Media and Broadcasting, 56, 150-167. doi:10.1080/08838151.2011.648683

Parra-Cardona, J. R., & DeAndrea, D. C. (2016). Latinos’ access to online and formal mental health support. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research43(2), 281–292. doi:10.1007/s11414-014-9420-0

Tan, N., & Cho, H. (2019). Cultural appropriateness in health communication: A review and a revised framework. Journal of Health Communication, 24, 492-502. doi:10.1080/10810730.2019.1620382

Vang, M. H., & Fox, J. (2014). Race in virtual environments: Competitive versus cooperative games with black or white avatars. CyberPsychology, Behavior, & Social Networking, 17, 235-240. doi:10.1089/cyber.2013.0289

Weaver, A. J., & Frampton, J. R. (2019). Crossing the color line: An examination of mediators and a social media intervention for racial bias in selective exposure to movies. Communication Monographs. doi:10.1080/03637751.2019.1613670

Yang, G. S., Gibson, B., Lueke, A. K., Huesmann, L. R., & Bushman, B. J. (2014). Effects of avatar race in violent video games on racial attitudes and aggression. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5(6), 698-704. doi:10.1177/1948550614528008.